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Oracle Recovery Manager (RMAN)
Version 11.1
 
General
Note:$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/prgrmanc.sql
Encryption Algorithms col algorithm_name format a15
col algorithm_description format a25

SELECT * FROM gv$rman_encryption_algorithms;

The default encryption algorithm is 128-bit AES.

Data Dictionary Objects
DBA_HIST_INSTANCE_RECOVERY GV_$RECOVERY_STATUS
DBA_RECOVERABLE_SCRIPT V_$FLASH_RECOVERY_AREA_USAGE
DBA_RECOVERABLE_SCRIPT_BLOCKS V_$INSTANCE_RECOVERY
DBA_RECOVERABLE_SCRIPT_ERRORS V_$RECOVER_FILE
DBA_RECOVERABLE_SCRIPT_PARAMS V_$RECOVERY_FILE_DEST
GV_$INSTANCE_RECOVERY V_$RECOVERY_FILE_STATUS
GV_$RECOVER_FILE V_$RECOVERY_LOG
GV_$RECOVERY_FILE_STATUS V_$RECOVERY_PROGRESS
GV_$RECOVERY_LOG V_$RECOVERY_STATUS
GV_$RECOVERY_PROGRESS  

Format Directives
Format Description
%a Current database activation id
%A Zero-filled activation ID
%c The copy number of the backup piece within a set of duplexed backup pieces.bMaximum value is 256
%d Database name
%D Current day of the month from the Gregorian calendar in format DD
%e Archived log sequence number
%f Absolute file number
%F Combines the DBID, day, month, year, and sequence into a unique and repeatable generated name
%h Archived redo log thread number
%I DBID
%M Month in the Gregorian calendar in the format MM
%n Database name, padded on the right with x characters to a total length of eight characters
%N Tablespace name. Only valid when backing up datafiles as image copies.
%p Piece number within the backup set. This value starts at 1 for each backup set and is incremented by 1 for each backup piece created. If a PROXY is specified, the %p variable must be included in the FORMAT string either explicitly or implicitly within %U.
%r Resetlogs ID
%s Backup set number. This number is a counter in the control file that is incremented for each backup set. The counter value starts at 1 and is unique for the lifetime of the control file. If you restore a backup control file, then duplicate values can result. CREATE CONTROLFILE initializes the counter at 1.
%S Zero-filled sequence number
%t Backup set time stamp, a 4-byte value derived as the number of seconds elapsed since a fixed reference time. The combination of %s and %t can be used to form a unique name for the backup set.
%T Year, month, and day in the Gregorian calendar in the format: YYYYMMDD
%u An 8-character name constituted by compressed representations of the backup set or image copy number and the time the backup set or image copy was created
%U A system-generated unique filename (default). %U is different for image copies and backup pieces. For a backup piece, %U is a shorthand for %u_%p_%c and guarantees uniqueness in generated backup filenames. For an image copy of a datafile, %U means the following:
data-D-%d_id-%I_TS-%N_FNO-%f_%u
For an image copy of an archived redo log, %U means the following:
arch-D_%d-id-%I_S-%e_T-%h_A-%a_%u
For an image copy of a control file, %U means the following:
cf-D_%d-id-%I_%u
%Y Year in this format: YYYY
%% Percent (%) character. For example, %%Y translates to the string %Y
Repository Initialization Parameters compatible=10.2.0
log_archive_format=RMAN_%s_%r_%d.arc
remote_login_passwordfile=SHARED
show parameter archive_format

To create a permanent NAS Mount
-- as root
$ unmount /mnt

$ mkdir /u01
$ chown oracle:dba /u01
$ chmod 755 /u01

$ cd /etc

$ vi fstab

192.168.2.200:/vol/vol1/alpha1 /u01 nfs rw,bg,intr,hard,rsize=32768,wsize=32768,noac,nolock,tcp,vers=3 0 0

Create RMAN Repository and Catalog
/* as Linux user oracle modify the TNSNAMES.ORA to point to the database that will host the repository catalog: Then ... */

$ sqlplus / as sysdba

-- using OMF

SQL> CREATE TABLESPACE cat_tbs;

SQL> CREATE USER repoomega
     IDENTIFIED BY oracle1
     DEFAULT TABLESPACE cat_tbs
     TEMPORARY TABLESPACE temp
     QUOTA UNLIMITED ON cat_tbs;

RMAN> GRANT create session TO repoomega
RMAN> GRANT recovery_catalog_owner TO repoomega;
RMAN> GRANT execute ON dbms_stats TO repoomega;  -- for demos

-- in the operating system shell
$ rman target / catalog repoomega/oracle1@repos

RMAN> create catalog tablespace cat_tbs;

RMAN> register database;

RMAN> report schema;

RMAN> configure default device type to disk;
RMAN> configure device type disk parallelism 2 backup type to copy;
RMAN> configure retention policy to recovery window of 7 days;
RMAN> configure backup optimization on;

Put the database into ARCHIVELOG mode
/* as Linux user oracle modify the TNSNAMES.ORA to point to the database that will host the repository catalog: Then ... */

$ sqlplus / as sysdba

col name format a30
col value format a30

SELECT name, value
FROM gv$parameter
WHERE name LIKE '%arch%';

-- alter the SPFILE as required
shutdown immediate;

startup mount;

alter database archivelog;

alter database open;

archive log list;

alter system switch logfile;

archive log list;
RMAN> BACKUP TAG Q107 DATABASE KEEP FOREVER;
Commands
@

Execute a series of script of RMAN commands stored in an operating system file. Do not leave whitespace between the @ and filename.
@<path_and_file_name>
rman TARGET / @backup_db.rcv

or

RMAN> RUN { @backup_db.rman }
 
@@
Execute script files located in the same directory as the file from which it has been called @@<path_and_file_name>
TBD
 
ADVISE FAILURE
Displays repair options for the specified failures. Prints a summary of the failures identified by the Data Recovery Advisor and implicitly closes all open failures that are already fixed. ADVISE FAILURE <ALL | CRITICAL | HIGH | LOW | failure_number_list>
EXCLUDE FAILURE <failure_number_list>
RMAN> LIST FAILURE;
RMAN> ADVISE FAILURE ALL;
RMAN> REPAIR FAILURE;
 
ALLOCATE CHANNEL
To manually allocate a channel, which is a connection between RMAN and a database instance. Each connection initiates an database server session on the target or auxiliary instance: this server session performs the work of backing up, restoring, or recovering RMAN backups.

Manually allocated channels (allocated by using ALLOCATE) should be distinguished from automatically allocated channels (specified by using CONFIGURE). Manually allocated channels apply only to the RUN job in which you issue the command. Automatic channels apply to any RMAN job in which you do not manually allocate channels. You can always override automatic channel configurations by manually allocating channels within a RUN command.

Each channel operates on one backup set or image copy at a time. RMAN automatically releases the channel at the end of the job.

You can control the degree of parallelism within a job by allocating the desired number of channels. Allocating multiple channels simultaneously allows a single job to read or write multiple backup sets or disk copies in parallel. If you establish multiple connections, then each connection operates on a separate backup set or disk copy.

Whether ALLOCATE CHANNEL causes operating system resources to be allocated immediately depends on the operating system. On some platforms, operating system resources are allocated at the time the command is issued. On other platforms, operating system resources are not allocated until you open a file for reading or writing.
Allocating a Single Backup Channel

Allocate a disk channel
ALLOCATE [AUXILIARY] CHANNEL <channel_name> [, <channel_id>, DEVICE TYPE <device_type_name>[allocation_operand_list]
SQL> desc gv$backup_device

SQL> SELECT * FROM gv$backup_device;

RMAN> RUN {
  ALLOCATE CHANNEL d1 DEVICE TYPE DISK
  FORMAT '/u01/backups/%U';
  BACKUP DATABASE PLUS ARCHIVELOG;
  RELEASE CHANNEL;
}
Allocates a tape channel for a whole database and archived redo log backup RMAN RUN {
  ALLOCATE CHANNEL tape1 DEVICE TYPE sbt
  BACKUP DATABASE PLUS ARCHIVELOG;
  RELEASE CHANNEL;
}
Spread the backup across several disk drives. Allocate one DEVICE TYPE DISK channel for ach disk drive and specify the format string so that the filenames are on different disks RUN {
  ALLOCATE CHANNEL d1 DEVICE TYPE DISK FORMAT '/u01/backups/%U'; 
  ALLOCATE CHANNEL d2 DEVICE TYPE DISK FORMAT '/u02/backups/%U';
  BACKUP DATABASE PLUS ARCHIVELOG;
  RELEASE CHANNEL;
}
When creating multiple copies of a backup, you can specify the SET BACKUP COPIES command. The following example generates a single backup of the database to disk, and then creates two identical backups of datafile 1 to two different file systems RUN {
  ALLOCATE CHANNEL c1 DEVICE TYPE DISK MAXPIECESIZE 5M;
  # AS COPY is the default, so RMAN creates image copies
  BACKUP DATABASE PLUS ARCHIVELOG;
  SET BACKUP COPIES = 2;
  BACKUP DATAFILE 1 FORMAT '/u01/backups/%U', '/u02/backups/%U';
}
Allocate Maintenance Channel
*Allocates a channel in preparation for a CHANGE, DELETE, or CROSSCHECK. This cannot be used within a RUN block. ALLOCATE CHANNEL FOR MAINTENANCE DEVICE TYPE <device_specifier> [allocation_operand_list];
RMAN> ALLOCATE CHANNEL FOR MAINTENANCE DEVICE TYPE DISK;|
 
ALTER CLONE
? ALTER CLONE ....
TBD
 
ALTER DATABASE

Mount and open the database
ALTER DATABASE <MOUNT | OPEN | OPEN RESETLOGS>;
RMAN> STARTUP NOMOUNT;
RMAN> ALTER DATABASE MOUNT;
RMAN> BACKUP DATABASE;
RMAN> ALTER DATABASE OPEN;

Mount and open the database resetlogs
RUN {
  ALLOCATE CHANNEL ch1 DEVICE TYPE sbt;
  SET UNTIL SCN 1024;
  RESTORE DATABASE;
  RECOVER DATABASE;
  ALTER DATABASE OPEN RESETLOGS;
}
 
BACKUP
-- Back up a database, tablespace, datafile (current or copy), control file (current or copy), SPFILE, archived log, or backup set.

BACKUP <BackupOperand> CHANNEL '<channel_id>' CHECK LOGICAL COPIES <integer>
CUMULATIVE DEVICE TYPE <deviceSpecifier> DISKRATIO <integer> DURATION
<FileNameConversionSpecification> FILERPERSET <integer> FORCE
< AUXILIARY FORMAT <formatSpec, NEW> | FORMAT <formatSpec>
<forRecoveryOfSpec>
FULL
<keep option>
MAXSETSIZE <sizeSpec>
<notBackedUpSpec>
NO CHECKSUM NO EXCLUDE POOL <integer> PROXY [ONLY] REUSE SECTION SIZE <sizeSpec> <skipSpec>
TAG '<tag_name>' VALIDATE
-- Back up a database, tablespace, datafile (current or copy), control file (current or copy), SPFILE, archived log, or backup set.

BACKUP <BackupOperand> CHANNEL '<channel_id>' CHECK LOGICAL COPIES <integer>
CUMULATIVE DEVICE TYPE <deviceSpecifier> DISKRATIO <integer> DURATION
<FileNameConversionSpecification> FILERPERSET <integer> FORCE
< AUXILIARY FORMAT <formatSpec, NEW> | FORMAT <formatSpec>
<forRecoveryOfSpec>
INCREMENTAL <LEVEL | FROM SCN> <integer>
<keep option>
MAXSETSIZE <sizeSpec>
<notBackedUpSpec>
NO CHECKSUM NO EXCLUDE POOL <integer> PROXY [ONLY] REUSE SECTION SIZE <sizeSpec> <skipSpec>
TAG '<tag_name>' VALIDATE
BACKUP ARCHIVELOG
Backs up copy of each distinct log sequence number BACKUP ARCHIVELOG <ALL | ...> ....
RMAN> BACKUP ARCHIVELOG ALL;
BACKUP AUXILIARY
? BACKUP AUXILIARY ....
TBD
BACKUP AS BACKUPSET
In the first RMAN places datafiles 3 through 7 into one backup set and datafiles 8 and 9 into another. In the second all datafiles go into a single backup set. BACKUP AS BACKUPSET DEVICE TYPE <device_identifier> COPIES <integer>
DATABASE FORMAT '<location_and_format>' ....
BACKUP AS BACKUPSET (DATAFILE 3, 4, 5, 6, 7) (DATAFILE 8, 9);

BACKUP AS BACKUPSET DATAFILE 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9;
BACKUP AS COMPRESSED BACKUPSET

Create two copies of a compressed
backupset.
BACKUP AS COMPRESSED BACKUPSET DEVICE TYPE <device_identifier>
COPIES <integer>
DATABASE FORMAT '<location_and_format>'
BACKUP AS COMPRESSED BACKUPSET DEVICE TYPE DISK COPIES 2
DATABASE FORMAT '/u01/db_%U', '/u02/db_%U';
BACKUP AS COPY

Backing up as an image copy
BACKUP AS COPY <backup_specification> ....
RUN {
  ALLOCATE CHANNEL dev1 DEVICE TYPE DISK FORMAT '/u01/%U';
  ALLOCATE CHANNEL dev2 DEVICE TYPE DISK FORMAT '/u02/%U';
  BACKUP AS COPY TABLESPACE system, tools, users, undotbs;
  BACKUP AS COPY CURRENT CONTROLFILE;
}
BACKUP BLOCKS
? BACKUP BLOCKS ....
TBD
BACKUP CHANNEL

Manually allocate a channel, in order to specify that the backup run by this channel should go to both pools first_copy and second_copy.

Back up only logs without 2 backups on disk
BACKUP CHANNEL '<channel_id>' ....
RUN {
  ALLOCATE CHANNEL d2 DEVICE TYPE DISK
  PARMS='ENV=(NSR_DATA_VOLUME_POOL=first_copy)';

  ALLOCATE CHANNEL d1 DEVICE TYPE DISK
  PARMS='ENV=(NSR_DATA_VOLUME_POOL=second_copy)';

  BACKUP CHANNEL d1 ARCHIVELOG UNTIL TIME 'SYSDATE'
  NOT BACKED UP 2 TIMES TAG SECOND_COPY;

  BACKUP CHANNEL d2 ARCHIVELOG UNTIL TIME 'SYSDATE'
  NOT BACKED UP 2 TIMES TAG FIRST_COPY;
}
BACKUP CHECK
SET MAXCORRUPT indicates that  no more than 1 corruption should be tolerated in each datafile. Because the CHECK LOGICAL option is specified on the BACKUP command, RMAN checks for both physical and logical corruption. BACKUP CHECK [LOGICAL] <database_specifications>
RUN {
  SET MAXCORRUPT FOR DATAFILE 5,6,7,8 TO 1;
  BACKUP CHECK LOGICAL DATABASE;
}
BACKUP CONTROLFILECOPY
? BACKUP CONTROLFILECOPY ....
TBD
BACKUP COPY
? BACKUP COPY ....
TBD
BACKUP COPIES

Define the number of backup copies to create
BACKUP COPIES <integer> ....
RUN {
  BACKUP COPIES 2 DEVICE TYPE sbt BACKUPSET ALL;
}
BACKUP CUMMULATIVE
? BACKUP CUMMULATIVE ....
TBD
BACKUP CURRENT

Backup the current Control File to the default or specified location
BACKUP CURRENT CONTROLFILE [TO DESTINATION <destination_path>];
RUN {
  BACKUP CURRENT CONTROLFILE TO DESTINATION '/u01/backups';
}
BACKUP DATABASE

Backup Database
RUN {
  ALLOCATE CHANNEL d1 DEVICE TYPE DISK;
  BACKUP DATABASE;
}

Backup Database Plus Archivelog
RUN {
  ALLOCATE CHANNEL d1 DEVICE TYPE DISK;
  BACKUP DATABASE PLUS ARCHIVELOG;
}
BACKUP DATAFILE

Datafile backup to multiple locations
BACKUP DATAFILE <integer> [FORMAT '<location_and_name_format>']

BACKUP DATAFILE <integer> [TO '<location>']
RUN {
  ALLOCATE CHANNEL d1 DEVICE TYPE DISK;
  BACKUP DATAFILE 1 FORMAT '/u01/backups/%U', '/u02/backups/%U';
  BACKUP DATAFILE 6 TO '/u01/backups', '/u02/backups';
}
BACKUP DATAFILECOPY
? BACKUP DATAFILECOPY ....
TBD
BACKUP DB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT
? BACKUP DB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT ....
TBD
BACKUP DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST
? BACKUP DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST ....
TBD
BACKUP DEVICE TYPE
RMAN locates all datafile copies with the tag LATESTCOPY, backs them up to tape, and names the backups by means of substitution variables. After the datafile copies are on tape, the example deletes all image copies with the tag LATESTCOPY. BACKUP DEVICE TYPE <DISK | SBT> ....
RMAN> {
  BACKUP DEVICE TYPE sbt
  DATAFILECOPY FROM TAG 'LATESTCOPY' FORMAT 'Datafile%f_Database%d';

  DELETE COPY TAG 'LATESTCOPY';
}
BACKUP DISKRATIO
Populate each backup set with datafiles from the specified number of disks. To disable set to 0. RMAN> BACKUP DISKRATIO 0; -- disable

RMAN> BACKUP DISKRATIO 5; -- enable
BACKUP DURATION
Backup will stop if it is not completed in the specified duration BACKUP DURATION <HH:MI> <backup_specification> [MINIMIZE <LOAD | TIME>]
BACKUP DURATION <HH:MI> <backup_specification> PARTIAL
RMAN> BACKUP DURATION 3:30 DATABASE;
BACKUP FILE
? BACKUP FILE ....
TBD
BACKUP FILESPERSET
? BACKUP FILESPERSET ....
TBD
BACKUP ... FOR RECOVER OF ...
This command will give me a level 1 backup to be used to recover level 0 backup to the latest level BACKUP ... FOR RECOVER OF COPY WITH TAG ....
RMAN > BACKUP INCREMENTAL LEVEL 1 FOR RECOVER OF COPY WITH TAG 'incr_upd' DATABASE FORMAT '/oradata/rman/161932/inc_%d_%T_%t_%s_%p';
Alters the RECOVER COPY... WITH TAG to perform incomplete recovery of the datafile copies to the point in time in the past where you want your window of recoverability to begin. Maintain a 7 day window. RUN {
  RECOVER COPY OF DATABASE WITH TAG 'incr_update' UNTIL TIME 'SYSDATE-7';
  BACKUP INCREMENTAL LEVEL 1 FOR RECOVER OF COPY WITH TAG 'incr_upd'
  DATABASE;
}
BACKUP FORCE
Forces RMAN to ignore backup optimization even if CONFIGURE BACKUP OPTIMIZATION is ON BACKUP FORCE <backup_specification>
RMAN> BACKUP FORCE DATABASE;
BACKUP FORMAT
Specify Backup Format BACKUP FORMAT <format_specification> ....
RMAN> BACKUP FORMAT = 'UW_%d/%t/%s/%p' ARCHIVELOG LIKE '%arc_dest%';
BACKUP FROM
? BACKUP FROM ....
TBD
BACKUP FULL
Creates a backup of all blocks of datafiles included in the backup BACKUP FULL
RMAN> BACKUP FULL;
BACKUP INCREMENTAL

Incremental Backup Level 0
BACKUP INCREMENTAL LEVEL <level_number> [CUMULATIVE | DIFFERENTIAL> ....
BACKUP INCREMENTAL LEVEL 0 DATABASE;
Incremental Backup Level 1
Run to back up blocks that have changed since most recent level 0 or 1
BACKUP INCREMENTAL LEVEL 1 CUMULATIVE DATABASE;
BACKUP INCREMENTAL LEVEL 1 DIFFERENTIAL TABLESPACE users;

BACKUP INCREMENTAL LEVEL 1 CUMULATIVE SKIP INACCESSIBLE DATABASE;

Copies two datafiles and exempts them from the retention policy forever
BACKUP KEEP <FOREVER | UNTIL TIME 'date_string' [RESTORE POINT <restore_point_name>]
RMAN> SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE;
RMAN> STARTUP MOUNT;

RMAN> BACKUP KEEP FOREVER FORMAT '?/dbs/%U_longterm.cpy'
TAG LNGTRM_BCK DATAFILE 5 DATAFILE 6;

RMAN> ALTER DATABASE OPEN;
BACKUP KEEP
? BACKUP KEEP ....
TBD
BACKUP MAXSETSIZE
? BACKUP MAXSETSIZE ....
TBD
BACKUP NOCHECKSUM
? BACKUP NOCHECKSUM ....
TBD
BACKUP NOEXCLUDE
? BACKUP NOEXCLUDE ....
TBD
BACKUP NOKEEP
? BACKUP NOKEEP ....
TBD
BACKUP NOT
? BACKUP NOT ....
TBD
BACKUP PROXY
? BACKUP PROXY ....
TBD
BACKUP POOL
? BACKUP POOL ....
TBD
BACKUP RECOVERY
? BACKUP RECOVERY ....
TBD
BACKUP REUSE
? BACKUP REUSE ....
TBD
BACKUP SECTION
? BACKUP SECTION ....
TBD
BACKUP SETSIZE
? BACKUP SETSIZE ....
TBD
BACKUP SKIP READONLY
? BACKUP SKIP READONLY ....
TBD
BACKUP SPFILE
Backup the Server Parameter file to the default or specified location BACKUP SPFILE [TO DESTINATION <destination_path>]
RMAN> BACKUP SPFILE TO DESTINATION '/u01/backups';
BACKUP TAG
Backup the database and apply a user specified tag BACKUP TAG '<tag_name>' ....
RMAN> BACKUP TAG 'weekly_full_db_bkup' DATABASE MAXSETSIZE 10M;
BACKUP TABLESPACE
? BACKUP TABLESPACE ....
TBD
BACKUP TO
? BACKUP TO ....
TBD
BACKUP VALIDATE
? BACKUP VALIDATE ....
TBD
 
BLOCKRECOVER
Block media recovery recovers an individual data block or set of data blocks within a datafile. This type of recovery is useful if the data loss or corruption applies to a small number of blocks rather than to an entire datafile.

Typically, block corruption is reported in error messages in trace files. Block-level data loss usually results from:
  • I/O errors causing minor data loss
  • Memory corruptions that get flushed to disk
BLOCKRECOVER ALLOW
? BLOCKRECOVER ALLOW ....
TBD
BLOCKRECOVER ARCHIVELOG
? BLOCKRECOVER ARCHIVELOG ....
TBD
BLOCKRECOVER AUXILIARY
? BLOCKRECOVER AUXILIARY ....
TBD
BLOCKRECOVER CHECK
? BLOCKRECOVER CHECK ....
TBD
BLOCKRECOVER CLEAR
? BLOCKRECOVER CLEAR ....
TBD
BLOCKRECOVER COPY
? BLOCKRECOVER COPY ....
TBD
BLOCKRECOVER CORRUPTION
? BLOCKRECOVER CORRUPTION ....
TBD
BLOCKRECOVER DATABASE
? BLOCKRECOVER DATABASE ....
TBD
BLOCKRECOVER DATAFILE

Recover corrupt blocks in 3 data files
BLOCKRECOVER DATAFILE <data_file_number> BLOCK <block_list>
RMAN> BLOCKRECOVER DATAFILE 2 BLOCK 12,13;

RMAN> BLOCKRECOVER DATAFILE 2 BLOCK 12,13 DATAFILE 3 BLOCK 5,98,99
      DATAFILE 4 BLOCK 19;

Limit block recovery by restoration type
BLOCKRECOVER DATAFILE <data_file_number> BLOCK <block_list> TABLESPACE <tablespace_name> FROM DATAFILECOPY
RUN {
  BLOCKRECOVER DATAFILE 3 BLOCK 2,3,4,5 TABLESPACE sales DBA 4194405, 4194409, 4194412
  FROM DATAFILECOPY;
}
BLOCKRECOVER DATAFILECOPY
? BLOCKRECOVER DATAFILECOPY ....
TBD
BLOCKRECOVER DELETE
? BLOCKRECOVER DELETE ....
TBD
BLOCKRECOVER DEVICE
? BLOCKRECOVER DEVICE ....
TBD
BLOCKRECOVER EXCLUDE
? BLOCKRECOVER EXCLUDE ....
TBD
BLOCKRECOVER FROM
? BLOCKRECOVER FROM ....
TBD
BLOCKRECOVER NOFILE UPDATE
? BLOCKRECOVER NOFILE UPDATE ....
TBD
BLOCKRECOVER NOPARALLEL
? BLOCKRECOVER NOPARALLEL ....
TBD
BLOCKRECOVER NOREDO
? BLOCKRECOVER NOREDO ....
TBD
BLOCKRECOVER PARALLEL
? BLOCKRECOVER PARALLEL ....
TBD
BLOCKRECOVER PREVIEW
? BLOCKRECOVER PREVIEW ....
TBD
BLOCKRECOVER RESTORE
? BLOCKRECOVER RESTORE ....
TBD
BLOCKRECOVER SAVE
? BLOCKRECOVER SAVE ....
TBD
BLOCKRECOVER SKIP READONLY
? BLOCKRECOVER SKIP READONLY ....
TBD
BLOCKRECOVER SAVE
? BLOCKRECOVER SAVE ....
TBD
BLOCKRECOVER TABLESPACE

Limit block recovery by backup tag
BLOCKRECOVER TABLESPACE <tablespace_name> ...
BLOCKRECOVER TABLESPACE SYSTEM DBA 4194404, 4194405 FROM TAG "weekly_backup";

Limit block recovery by time
BLOCKRECOVER TABLESPACE <tablespace_name> ...
BLOCKRECOVER TABLESPACE SYSTEM DBA 4194404, 4194405 RESTORE UNTIL TIME 'SYSDATE-2';

Repair all corrupt blocks in the database using gv$database_block_corruption
BLOCKRECOVER CORRUPTION LIST
BACKUP VALIDATE DATABASE;
BLOCKRECOVER CORRUPTION LIST;
BLOCKRECOVER TEST
? BLOCKRECOVER TEST ....
TBD
BLOCKRECOVER UNDO
? BLOCKRECOVER UNDO ....
TBD
BLOCKRECOVER VALIDATE
? BLOCKRECOVER VALIDATE ....
TBD
 
CATALOG
Adds information about file copies and user-managed backups to the repository
CATALOG ARCHIVELOG
Back the named archive log CATALOG ARCHIVELOG '<file_name_list>'
RMAN> CATALOG ARCHIVELOG '
CATALOG BACKUP
Catalogs the backups specified CATALOG BACKUP ...
RMAN> CATALOG BACKUP ...
CATALOG BACKUPPIECE

Catalogs the backup pieces in the new location
CATALOG BACKUPPIECE <file_name_list>
RMAN> CATALOG BACKUPPIECE '/u01/c-874220581-20080315-01'; USING
      target database control file instead of recovery catalog
      cataloged backup piece backup piece
      handle=/u01/c-874220581-20080315-01 RECID=8
      STAMP=607695990;
CATALOG CLONE
? CATALOG CLONE ...
TBD
CATALOG CONTROLFILECOPY
Catalog the control files identified CATALOG CONTROLFILECOPY <controlfilecopy_name_list>
RMAN> COPY CURRENT CONTROLFILE TO '/stage';

RMAN> CATALOG CONTROLFILECOPY '/stage/control01.ctl'
CATALOG DATAFILECOPY
Specifies that the datafile copy should be recorded as a level 0 incremental backup (0 is the only valid value of LEVEL) DATAFILECOPY  <file_name_list> LEVEL <integer>
RMAN> CATALOG DATAFILECOPY '/stage/users01.dbf';
RMAN> CATALOG DATAFILECOPY '/u02/backup/users01.bak' LEVEL 0;
RMAN> LIST COPY;
CATALOG DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST
Catalog the Backup Pieces held in the location set by  DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST CATALOG DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST
RMAN> CATALOG DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST;
CATALOG DEVICE
? CATALOG DEVICE ...
TBD
CATALOG RECOVERY
Catalog all files in the currently enabled flash recovery area CATALOG RECOVERY AREA
RMAN> CATALOG RECOVERY AREA;
CATALOG START
Catalog all files in a named disk location CATALOG START WITH <path_name> [NOPROMPT]
RMAN> CATALOG START WITH '/u02/archivelog' NOPROMPT;
 
CHANGE
To make the following changes:
  • To change the status of backups, copies, and archived logs in the repository to AVAILABLE or UNAVAILABLE. This feature is useful when a previously unavailable file is made available again, or you do not want a specific backup or copy to be eligible to be restored but also do not want to delete it.
  • To alter the repository status of usable backups and copies from prior incarnations.
  • To remove catalog records for backups and copies, and update the corresponding records in the target control file to status DELETED. This feature is useful when you remove a file by using an operating system command rather than the RMAN CHANGE command, and want to remove its repository record as well.
  • To specify that a backup or copy should either abide by the currently configured retention policy or be exempt from it.
CHANGE ARCHIVELOG

Move all archived logs to a new directory, uncatalog them, and then recatalog them in the new location
CHANGE ARCHIVELOG ...
HOST 'mv $ORACLE_HOME/oradata/trgt/arch/* /fs2/arch';
CHANGE ARCHIVELOG ALL UNCATALOG;
CATALOG START WITH '/fs2/arch';
CHANGE BACKUP

Change the status of all backups of server parameter files created more than a day ago to UNAVAILABLE
CHANGE BACKUP ...
CHANGE BACKUP OF SPFILE COMPLETED BEFORE 'SYSDATE-1' UNAVAILABLE;

CHANGE BACKUP OF ARCHIVELOG ALL NOKEEP;
CHANGE BACKUPSET
Change the status a backup set CHANGE BACKUPSET ...
CHANGE BACKUPSET 42 UNAVAILABLE;
Change an ordinary backup into a long-term backup CHANGE BACKUPSET ...
CHANGE BACKUP TAG 'consistent_db_bkup' KEEP FOREVER NOLOGS;
CHANGE CHANGEFAILURE
? CHANGE CHANGEFAILURE ...
TBD
CHANGE CONTROLFILECOPY
? CHANGE CONTROLFILECOPY ...
TBD
CHANGE COPY
? CHANGE COPY ...
TBD
CHANGE DATAFILECOPY
? CHANGE DATAFILECOPY ...
TBD
CHANGE DB_UNIQUE_NAME_FROM
? CHANGE DB_UNIQUE_NAME_FROM ...
TBD
 
CONFIGURE
To configure persistent settings affecting RMAN backup, restore, duplication, and maintenance jobs. These configurations are in effect for any RMAN session until the configuration is cleared or changed.

Configuration Defaults
$ rman

RMAN> SHOW ALL

RMAN> CONFIGURE ARCHIVELOG BACKUP COPIES FOR DEVICE TYPE DISK TO 1;
RMAN> CONFIGURE ARCHIVELOG DELETION POLICY TO NONE;
RMAN> CONFIGURE BACKUP OPTIMIZATION OFF;
RMAN> CONFIGURE CONTROLFILE AUTOBACKUP OFF;
RMAN> CONFIGURE CONTROLFILE AUTOBACKUP FORMAT FOR DEVICE TYPE DISK TO '%F';
RMAN> CONFIGURE DATAFILE BACKUP COPIES FOR DEVICE TYPE DISK TO 1;
RMAN> CONFIGURE DEFAULT DEVICE TYPE TO DISK;
RMAN> CONFIGURE DEVICE TYPE DISK PARALLELISM 1 BACKUP TYPE TO BACKUPSET;
RMAN> CONFIGURE ENCRYPTION FOR DATABASE OFF;
RMAN> CONFIGURE ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM 'AES128';
RMAN> CONFIGURE MAXSETSIZE TO 2 G;
RMAN> CONFIGURE RETENTION POLICY TO REDUNDANCY 1;
RMAN> CONFIGURE SNAPSHOT CONTROLFILE NAME TO
      '/app/oracle/product/flash_recovery_area/snapshot.ctl';
CONFIGURE AUXILIARY
? CONFIGURE AUXILIARY CHANNEL <DEVICE, INTEGER> ....
RMAN> CONFIGURE AUXILARY
CONFIGURE AUXNAME

Set and clear an auxiliary name for a datafile
CONFIGURE AUXNAME FOR DATAFILE <data_file_number> TO <path_and_file_name>
CONFIGURE AUXNAME FOR DATAFILE CLEAR
RMAN> CONFIGURE AUXNAME FOR DATAFILE 5 TO '/home/oracle/auxfiles/aux1.f';

RMAN> CONFIGURE AUXNAME FOR DATAFILE 4 CLEAR;
CONFIGURE CHANNEL
? CONFIGURE CHANNEL <DEVICE TYPE | INTEGER> <configuration | CLEAR>
RMAN> CONFIGURE CHANNEL DEVICE TYPE 'SBT_TAPE' CLEAR;
? CONFIGURE CLONENAME ....
RMAN> CONFIGURE CLONENAME
CONFIGURE COMPATIBLE
? CONFIGURE COMPATIBLE ....
RMAN> CONFIGURE COMPATIBLE
CONFIGURE COMPRESSION

Configure a backup compression algorithm
CONFIGURE COMPRESSION ALGORITHM <CLEAR | '<quoted_string>'>
SELECT algorithm_name, algorithm_description
FROM v$rman_compression_algorithm;

RMAN> CONFIGURE COMPRESSION ALGORITHM 'ZLIB';
CONFIGURE CONTROLFILE
Enable autobackup and configure  the default autobackup format for a DISK device CONFIGURE CONTROLFILE AUTOBACKUP
CONFIGURE CONTROLFILE AUTOBACKUP ON;

CONFIGURE CONTROLFILE AUTOBACKUP FORMAT FOR DEVICE TYPE DISK TO '/u02/%F';
CONFIGURE DB_UNIQUE_NAME
? CONFIGURE DB_UNIQUE_NAME '<db_unique_name>' <CLEAR | CONNECT IDENTIFIER '<quoted_string>'>
TBD

Set and clear encryption
CONFIGURE ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM <CLEAR | encryption_algorithm>
SQL> col algorithm_name format a20
SQL> col algorithm_description format a25

SQL> SELECT algorithm_name, algorithm_description
     FROM v$rman_encryption_algorithms;

RMAN> CONFIGURE ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM 'AES256';

RMAN> CONFIGURE ENCRYPTION CLEAR;
Configure Database or Tablespace Encryption CONFIGURE ENCRYPTION FOR <DATABASE | TABLESPACE <tablespace_name>>
<ON | OFF | CLEAR>
RMAN> CONFIGURE ENCRYPTION FOR DATABASE ON;

RMAN> CONFIGURE ENCRYPTION FOR TABLESPACE uwdata OFF;
? CONFIGURE EXCLUDE ...
TBD
 
CONNECT
Creates a connection between RMAN and a target, auxiliary, or recovery catalog database
Auxiliary CONNECT AUXILIARY <user_id>/<password>@<instance>
$ rman auxiliary oracle/oracle1@prodb

Catalog
CONNECT
$ rman catalog repoomega/oracle1@repos

$ rman
RMAN> connect catalog repoomega/oracle1@repos

Target only
CONNECT TARGET <user_id>/<password>@<instance>
$ rman target /

$ rman>
RMAN> connect target /  catalog repoomega/oracle1@repos

Target and Catalog
CONNECT
$ rman target / catalog repoomega/oracle1@repos

$ rman>
RMAN> connect target /  catalog repoomega/oracle1@repos

Target without a catalog
CONNECT
$ rman

RMAN> connect target omega1/omega1@emrep NOCATALOG
 
CONVERT
Converts a datafile, tablespace or database to the format of a destination platform, in preparation for transport across different platforms
CONVERT DATABASE

Uses CONVERT DATABASE NEW DATABASE to convert  datafiles and generate a transport script
CONVERT DATABASE NEW DATABASE '<db_name>'
TRANSPORT SCRIPT '<script_location>'
TO PLATFORM '<platform_name>'
DB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT '<source_location> <destination_location>'
CONVERT DATABASE
NEW DATABASE 'prodb'
TRANSPORT SCRIPT '/tmp/convertdb/transportscript'
TO PLATFORM 'Linux IA (64-bit)'
DB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT '/u01/oradata', '/stage/dbfiles';
CONVERT DATAFILE

Converts the datafiles to be transported to the destination host format and deposits the results in /u02/oradata
CONVERT DATAFILE <datafile_name_list>
DB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT '<source_location> <destination_location>'
FROM PLATFORM <original_platform_name>
CONVERT DATAFILE
'/tmp/transport_from_aix/u01/uwdata01.dbf',
'/tmp/transport_from_aix/u01/uwdata02.dbf',
'/tmp/transport_from_aix/u03/users01.dbf',
'/tmp/transport_from_aix/u03/users02.dbf'
DB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT
'/app/oracle/product/oradata','/stage/oradata',
'/tmp/transport_from_solaris/hr','/stage/oradata'
FROM PLATFORM 'Linux IA (64-bit)';
CONVERT TABLESPACE

Convert a tablespaces to 64 bit Linux
CONVERT TABLESPACE <tablespace_name_list> TO PLATFORM <platform_name> FORMAT '<format_string>'
desc v$transportable_platform

SELECT platform_name, endian_format
FROM v$transportable_platform;

CONVERT TABLESPACE
uwdata, users TO PLATFORM 'Linux IA (64-bit)'
FORMAT '/app/oracle/product/flash_recovery_area/linux64/%U';
 
COPY
? COPY ARCHIVELOG ... (level, nochecksum, nokeep, reuse, tag)
RMAN> COPY ARCHIVELOG
? COPY BACKUP ...
RMAN> COPY BACKUP
? COPY CHECK ...
RMAN> COPY CHECK
? COPY CONTROLFILECOPY ...
RMAN> COPY CONTROLFILECOPY
? COPY CURRENT ...
RMAN> COPY CURRENT
? COPY DATAFILE ...
RMAN> COPY DATAFILE
? COPY DATAFILECOPY ...
RMAN> COPY DATAFILECOPY
? COPY KEEP ...
RMAN> COPY KEEP
 
CREATE
CREATE CATALOG

Create a recovery catalog or a virtual private catalog
CREATE [VIRTUAL] CATALOG;
RMAN> CREATE CATALOG;

SQL> conn repoomega/oracle1@repos

SQL> SELECT object_type, COUNT(*)
     FROM user_objects;

RMAN> DROP CATALOG;

SQL> SELECT object_type, COUNT(*)
     FROM user_objects;
CREATE RESTORE POINT
Create a restore point CREATE RESTORE POINT <restore_point_name>
RMAN> CREATE RESTORE POINT app_patch;
RMAN> DROP RESTORE POINT app_patch;
CREATE SCRIPT

Creates a stored script called backup_whole that backs up the database and archived redo logs
CREATE [GLOBAL] SCRIPT '<script_name>'
COMMENT '<comment>'
{RMAN_command_list}
FROM FILE '<file_name>'
CREATE SCRIPT backup_whole 
COMMENT "backup whole database and logs"
{
  BACKUP INCREMENTAL LEVEL 0 TAG b_whole_l0 
  DATABASE PLUS ARCHIVELOG;
}
Creates a stored script called backup_whole that backs up the database and archived redo logs CREATE GLOBAL SCRIPT global_backup_db
COMMENT "backup any database from the recovery catalog, with logs"
{
  BACKUP DATABASE PLUS ARCHIVELOG;
}
 
CROSSCHECK
Verify the status of backups and copies recorded in the RMAN repository against media such as disk or tape. The CROSSCHECK command only processes files created on the same device type as the channels running the crosscheck.
Status Description
AVAILABLE The Object is available for use by RMAN. For a backup set to be AVAILABLE, all set backup pieces must be AVAILABLE.
EXPIRED Object is not found either in file system (for DISK) or in the media manager (for sbt). Note that for a backup set to be EXPIRED, all backup pieces in the set must be EXPIRED. EXPIRED does not mean the same as OBSOLETE.
UNAVAILABLE Object is not available for use by RMAN. For a backup set to be UNAVAILABLE, all backup pieces must be UNAVAILABLE.
The following objects can be crosschecked:
ARCHIVELOG BACKUP BACKUPPIECE BACKUPSET CONTROLFILECOPY COPY DATAFILECOPY PROXY
CROSSCHECK ARCHIVELOG

Allocate a channel and crosscheck all archivelogs
CROSSCHECK <archivelogRecordSpecifier>
RMAN> RUN {
  ALLOCATE CHANNEL d1 FOR MAINTENANCE DEVICE TYPE DISK;
  CROSSCHECK ARCHIVELOG ALL;
  RELEASE CHANNEL;
}
CROSSCHECK BACKUP

Allocate a channel, crosscheck backups in a date range and release the channel after use
CROSSCHECK BACKUP ....
RMAN> RUN {
  ALLOCATE CHANNEL d1 FOR MAINTENANCE DEVICE TYPE DISK;
  CROSSCHECK BACKUP DEVICE TYPE DISK COMPLETED BETWEEN '01-JUL-08' AND '30-SEP-08';
  RELEASE CHANNEL;
}
CROSSCHECK BACKUPPIECE
Checks that specific backuppieces still exist CROSSCHECK BACKUPPIECE ....
RMAN> CROSSCHECK BACKUPPIECE
CROSSCHECK BACKUPSET
Checks that specific backupsets still exist CROSSCHECK BACKUPSET OF <backupset identifier>;
RMAN> CROSSCHECK BACKUPSET OF TABLESPACE UWDATA;
CROSSCHECK COPY
Checks for the physical existence of archivelog files and will change the V$ARCHIVED_LOG.STATUS of affected archivelogs from "A" for AVAILABLE to "X" for EXPIRED. Once the archivelog file has a status of X, RMAN will no longer attempt to backup this archivelog file. CROSSCHECK COPY ...
RMAN> CROSSCHECK COPY OF ARCHIVELOG ALL;
CROSSCHECK CONTROLFILECOPY
Checks that specific controlfile copies still exist CROSSCHECK CONTROLFILECOPY ....
RMAN> CROSSCHECK CONTROLFILECOPY
CROSSCHECK DATAFILECOPY
Checks that specific bdatafile copies still exist CROSSCHECK DATAFILECOPY <ALL | INTEGER | LIKE | QUOTED_STRING>
RMAN> CROSSCHECK DATAFILECOPY ALL;
CROSSCHECK FOREIGN
Crosscheck all foreign archived redo logs CROSSCHECK FOREIGN ARCHIVELOG <ALL | FROM | HIGH | LOGSEQ | LOW | SCN | SEQUENCE | TIME | UNTIL> ....
RMAN> CROSSCHECK FOREIGN ARCHIVELOG ALL;
CROSSCHECK PROXY
Crosscheck the existence of a specific proxy copy CROSSCHECK PROXY
*RMAN> CROSSCHECK PROXY 941;
 
DEBUG
Commands for the RMAN debugger DEBUG <AFFINITY | ALL | DUPLICATE | IO | KRB | MISC | NODEVALS | OFF | ON | PACKAGES | PLSQL | RCVCAT | RCVMAN | RECOVER | RESTORE | RESYNC | RPC | SQL>
*RMAN> DEBUG ALL;
*RMAN> DEBUG OFF;
 
DELETE
To delete physical backups and copies as well as do the following:
  • Update their repository records in the target control file to status DELETED
  • Remove their repository records from the recovery catalog (if you use a catalog)

When running RMAN interactively, DELETE displays a list of the files and prompts you for confirmation before deleting any file in the list. When reading commands from a command file, RMAN will not prompt for confirmation.

DELETE ARCHIVELOG
Wildcard Delete DELETE ARCHIVELOG <ALL | FROM | HIGH | LIKE | LOGSEQ | LOW | QUOTED_STRING | SCN | SEQUENCE | TIME | UNTIL> ....
RMAN> LIST ARCHIVELOG LIKE '%';
RMAN> CROSSCHECK ARCHIVELOG LIKE '%';
RMAN> DELETE ARCHIVELOG LIKE '%';
DELETE BACKUPSET
Delete Backup Set ?
*DELETE NOPROMPT BACKUP OF DATABASE COMPLETED BEFORE 'SYSDATE-7';

Delete both Disk and Tape Backup Sets
?
# back up datafile to disk and tape
BACKUP DEVICE TYPE DISK DATAFILE 1 TAG "weekly_bkup";
BACKUP DEVICE TYPE sbt DATAFILE 1 TAG "weekly_bkup";

# manually allocate disk and sbt channels
ALLOCATE CHANNEL FOR MAINTENANCE DEVICE TYPE DISK;
ALLOCATE CHANNEL FOR MAINTENANCE DEVICE TYPE SBT;
DELETE BACKUPSET TAG "weekly_bkup";
DELETE EXPIRED

Deletes expired backup records
DELETE [FORCE | NOPROMPT] EXPIRED <maintenance_spec> [for db_unique_name_option];
RMAN> CROSSCHECK BACKUP;
RMAN> DELETE EXPIRED BACKUP;

RMAN> CROSSCHECK BACKUPSET OF TABLESPACE uwdata DEVICE TYPE disk COMPLETED BEFORE SYSDATE-15;

RMAN> DELETE NOPROMPT EXPIRED BACKUPSET OF TABLESPACE uwdata DEVICE TYPE disk COMPLETED BEFORE SYSDATE-15;
DELETE OBSOLETE
Delete Obsolete DELETE [FORCE | NOPROMPT] OBSOLETE [obsOperandList] [device_type] [device_specifier];
RMAN> DELETE FORCE OBSOLETE;
DELETE SCRIPT
Deletes a stored script b_whole_10 from the recovery catalog DELETE [GLOBAL] SCRIPT '<script_name>'
rman TARGET / CATALOG rman/cat@catdb
RMAN> DELETE SCRIPT b_whole_10;
RMAN> DELETE GLOBAL SCRIPT b_whole_10;
 
Drop
DROP CATALOG
Drop the RMAN catalog DROP CATALOG;
*See CREATE CATALOG Demo Above
DROP DATABASE
Use RMAN to issue the drop database command DROP DATABASE;
No demo is shown as this is something I would strongly recommend against doing within RMAN.
DROP RESTORE POINT
Drop a restore point DROP RESTORE POINT <restore_point_name>
*See CREATE RESTORE POINT Demo Above
 
DUPLICATE

Allocates axiliary channels and duplicates the target database as newdb
DUPLICATE [TARGET] DATABASE TO <new_name>
LOGFILE '<redo_log_file_path_and_name>' SIZE <integer> <K | M>
[SKIP READONLY] [NOFILENAMECHECK]
RUN { 
  ALLOCATE AUXILIARY CHANNEL d1 DEVICE TYPE DISK;
  ALLOCATE AUXILIARY CHANNEL d2 DEVICE TYPE DISK;
  DUPLICATE TARGET DATABASE TO newdb
    LOGFILE 
      '?/oradata/aux1/redo01.log' SIZE 50M, 
      '?/oradata/aux1/redo02.log' SIZE 50M,
      '?/oradata/aux1/redo03.log' SIZE 50M
  SKIP READONLY
  NOFILENAMECHECK;
}
 
EXIT

Exit from RMAN or a terminal window
EXIT
RMAN> target /
*RMAN> EXIT;

or

RMAN> HOST;
*$ EXIT;
RMAN>
 
FLASHBACK DATABASE
Returns the database to its state at a previous time or SCN FLASHBACK DATABASE TO SCN=<integer>
*RMAN> FLASHBACK DATABASE TO SCN=42678315;
 
GRANT
Grant privileges to a recovery catalog user GRANT <privilege> TO <schema_name>
*RMAN> GRANT CATALOG FOR DATABASE orabase TO repoomega;
*RMAN> GRANT REGISTER DATABASE TO repoomega;
 
HOST
Shell out of RMAN to the operating system for command execution HOST
*See EXIT Demo Above
 
IMPORT
IMPORT CATALOG
Imports the metadata from one recovery catalog into a different recovery catalog ?
?
IMPORT RCVCAT
? ?
?
 
LIST

Produce a detailed listing of the indicated items
LIST <ARCHIVELOG | COPY | DB_UNIQUE_NAME | FAILURE> ALL;
*RMAN> LIST ARCHIVELOG ALL;

*RMAN> LIST COPY;

*RMAN> LIST DB_UNIQUE_NAME ALL;

*For LIST FAILURE See Advise Failure Demo Above
List the most recent Level 0 backups
Lisa T. was kind enough to send in this useful bit of code that will give you a list of the most recent Level 0 backups. select distinct to_char((b.CHECKPOINT_TIME), 'YYYY-MM-DD HH:MI.SS') t
from v$backup_datafile b, v$tablespace ts, v$datafile f
where b.incremental_level = 0
and INCLUDED_IN_DATABASE_BACKUP='YES'
and f.file#=b.file#
and f.ts#=ts.ts#
group by b.checkpoint_time
order by 1;
 
PRINT SCRIPT
Display a stored script PRINT <IDENTIFIER | QUOTED_STRING>
See CREATE SCRIPT Demos Above
 
PURGE
? PURGE
See "CREATE SCRIPT" Demos Above
 
QUIT
Exit the RMAN executable QUIT
*RMAN> QUIT;
 
RECOVER
Apply redo logs and incremental backups to datafiles or data blocks restored from backup or datafile copies, in order to update them to a specified time RECOVER
TBD
 
REGISTER DATABASE
Register a Target in the Database  
Recovery Catalog
REGISTER DATABASE
*RMAN> REGISTER DATABASE;
 
RELEASE CHANNEL
Release a channel that was allocated with an ALLOCATE CHANNEL command or ALLOCATE CHANNEL FOR MAINTENANCE command RELEASE CHANNEL
See ? Demo Above
 
REPAIR FAILURE
Repair one or more failures recorded in the automated diagnostic repository REPAIR FAILURE [<NO | NOPROMPT | PREVIEW | USING>
*See Advise Failure Demo Above
 
REPLACE SCRIPT
Replace an existing script stored in the recovery catalog. If the script does not exist, then REPLACE SCRIPT creates it REPLACE SCRIPT
TBD
 
REPORT
Perform detailed analyses on  recovery catalog metadata REPORT
RMAN> REPORT SCHEMA;
 
RESET DATABASE

Reset the incarnation of the target database in the RMAN repository to a previous database incarnation
RESET DATABASE TO INCARNATION <incarnation_identifier>;
$ rman target / nocatalog
RMAN> STARTUP NOMOUNT;
RMAN> RESTORE CONTROLFILE FROM AUTOBACKUP;
RMAN> ALTER DATABASE MOUNT;
RMAN> LIST INCARNATION OF DATABASE orabase;
RMAN> RESET DATABASE TO INCARNATION 1;
RMAN> RESTORE DATABASE UNTIL SCN 4208974;
RMAN> RECOVER DATABASE UNTIL SCN 4208974;
RMAN> ALTER DATABASE OPEN RESETLOGS;
RMAN> LIST INCARNATION OF DATABASE orabase;
 
RESTORE

Restore files from backup sets or from disk copies to the default or a new location
RESTORE
RMAN> target / catalog rman/rman@rman

RMAN> backup database;

RMAN> validate backupset 1;

SQL> conn scott/tiger

SQL> DELETE FROM emp WHERE rownum < 6;

SQL> COMMIT;

RMAN> restore database;
 
RESYNC
Perform a full resynchronization, which creates a snapshot control file and then copies any new or changed information from that snapshot control file to the recovery catalog.

This example performs a full resynchronization of the target database after archiving all unarchived redo logs
RESYNC CATALOG FROM CONTROLFILECOPY '<file_name>'

RESYNC FROM DB_UNIQUE_NAME ALL

RESYNC FROM DB_UNIQUE_NAME '<db_unique_name>'
Mount the target database, update the repository in the current control file with metadata from a backup control file, then open the database $ rman target /
RMAN> STARTUP FORCE MOUNT;
RMAN> RESYNC CATALOG FROM CONTROLFILECOPY '/u01/cfile.dbf';
RMAN> ALTER DATABASE OPEN;
After adding a datafile to an existing tablespace *RMAN> RESYNC CATALOG;
 
Revoke
Revoke privileges from a recovery catalog user REVOKE
TBD
 
Run
Execute a script of RMAN commands RUN {
  <script commands>
}
See "Allocate A Single Backup Channel" Demo Above
 
Send
Send a vendor-specific quoted string to one or more specific channels
SEND CHANNEL
Specify commands by CHANNEL SEND CHANNEL '<channel_id>' '<command_string>' PARMS '<channel_params>'
TBD
SEND DEVICE_TYPE

Specify a tape drive for a backup of the users tablespace to Oracle Secure Backup
SEND DEVICE_TYPE '<device_specifier>' '<command_string>'
PARMS '<channel_params>'
RUN
{
  ALLOCATE CHANNEL c1 DEVICE TYPE sbt;
  SEND 'OB_DEVICE stape1';
  BACKUP TABLESPACE users;
}
 
Set
Set the value of various attributes that affect RMAN behavior for the duration of a RUN block or a session

?
SET <OFF | ON> [FOR ALL TABLESPACES]
TBD

Restore database and recover until the specified date and time
SET ARCHIVELOG DESTINATION TO '<
SET BACKUP COPIES <integer>
SET COMPRESSION ALGORITHM '<compression_algorithm_name>'
SET DECRYPTION IDENTIFIED BY <password>
SET ECHO <ON | OFF>
SET ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM '<algorithm_name>'
SET IDENTIFIED BY <password> [ONLY]
SET MAXCORRUPT FOR DATAFILE <dataFileSpec> TO <integer>
SET NEWNAME FOR DATAFILE <dataFileSpec> TO '<file_name>'
SET NEWNAME FOR DATAFILE <dataFileSpec> TO NEW
SET NEWNAME FOR TEMPFILE <tempFileSpec> TO '<quoted_string>'
SET NEWNAME FOR TEMPFILE <tempFileSpec> TO NEW
SET TO RESTORE POINT <restore_point_name>
SET UNTIL <TIME | SCN>
CONFIGURE ARCHIVELOG COPIES FOR DEVICE TYPE sbt TO 3;
CONFIGURE DATAFILE COPIES FOR DEVICE TYPE sbt TO 3;

RMAN> run {
  ALLOCATE CHANNEL dev1 DEVICE TYPE sbt
  PARMS 'ENV=(OB_DEVICE_1=stape1,OB_DEVICE_2=stape2)';
SET BACKUP COPIES 2;
  BACKUP DATABASE PLUS ARCHIVELOG;
}
RMAN> run {
  SET UNTIL TIME = "TO_DATE('03/15/08 10:42:07','MM/DD/RR HH24:MI:SS')";
  RESTORE DATABASE;
  RECOVER DATABASE;
}

?
SET AUXILIARY INSTANCE PARAMETER FILE TO '<file_name>

SET COMMAND ID TO '<string>'

SET CONTROLFILE AUTOBACKUP FORMAT FOR DEVICE TYPE <deviceSpecifier> TO <formatSpec>

SET DBID <integer>
RMAN> RUN {
  ALLOCATE CHANNEL d1 DEVICE TYPE DISK FORMAT '/u01/%U';
  ALLOCATE CHANNEL d2 DEVICE TYPE DISK FORMAT '/u02/%U';
  SET COMMAND ID TO 'rman';
  BACKUP INCREMENTAL LEVEL 0 DATABASE;
  SQL 'ALTER SYSTEM ARCHIVE LOG CURRENT';
}
RMAN> SET DBID 3257174182;

RMAN> STARTUP FORCE NOMOUNT;

RMAN> RUN {
  ALLOCATE CHANNEL t1 DEVICE TYPE sbt;
  RESTORE SPFILE FROM AUTOBACKUP;
}

STARTUP FORCE; # RMAN restarts database with restored SPFILE
$ rman target /

RMAN> STARTUP FORCE NOMOUNT
RMAN> SET DBID 28014364;

RMAN> RUN {
  SET CONTROLFILE AUTOBACKUP FORMAT FOR DEVICE TYPE DISK TO '/u02/cf_%F.bak';
  RESTORE CONTROLFILE FROM AUTOBACKUP MAXSEQ 100;
}

ALTER DATABASE MOUNT;
RECOVER DATABASE;
ALTER DATABASE OPEN RESETLOGS;
 
Show
All ALL
$ rman target / catalog repoomega1/oracle1@repos
RMAN> show all;
Auxname AUXNAME
$ rman target / catalog repoomega1/oracle1@repos
RMAN> show auxname;
Backup Copies {DATAFILE | ARCHIVELOG} BACKUP COPIES
$ rman target / catalog repoomega1/oracle1@repos
RMAN> show datafile backup copies;
RMAN> show archivelog backup copies;
Backup Optimization BACKUP OPTIMIZATION
$ rman target / catalog repoomega1/oracle1@repos
RMAN> show backup optimization;
Channel [AUXILIARY] CHANNEL [FOR DEVICE TYPE <deviceSpecifier>]
$ rman target / catalog repoomega1/oracle1@repos
RMAN> show channel;
Control File Auto-Backup CONTROLFILE AUTOBACKUP [FORMAT]
$ rman target / catalog repoomega1/oracle1@repos
RMAN> show controfile autobackup;
Control File Auto-Backup Format CONTROLFILE AUTOBACKUP FORMAT <format mask>
$ rman target / catalog repoomega1/oracle1@repos
RMAN> show controfile autobackup;
Database Encryption ENCRYPTION FOR DATABASE
$ rman target / catalog repoomega1/oracle1@repos
RMAN> show encryption for database;
Device Type [DEFAULT] DEVICE TYPE
$ rman target / catalog repoomega1/oracle1@repos
RMAN> show device type;
Encryption Algorithm ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM
$ rman target / catalog repoomega1/oracle1@repos
RMAN> show encryption algorithm;
Exclude EXCLUDE
$ rman target / catalog repoomega1/oracle1@repos
RMAN> show exclude;
Maximum Backup Set Size MAXSETSIZE
$ rman target / catalog repoomega1/oracle1@repos
RMAN> show maxsetsize;
Retention Policy RETENTION POLICY
$ rman target / catalog repoomega1/oracle1@repos
RMAN> show retention policy;
RMAN> show retention policy to redundancy;
Snapshot Control File Name SNAPSHOT CONTROLFILE NAME
$ rman target / catalog repoomega1/oracle1@repos
RMAN> SHOW SNAPSHOT CONTROLFILE NAME;
 
Shutdown
Shutdown the target database SHUTDOWN <ABORT | IMMEDIATE | NORMAL | TRANSACTIONAL>
RMAN> SHUTDOWN ABORT;
 
Spool

Write RMAN output to a log file
SPOOL LOG OFF

SPOOL LOG TO <file_name> [APPEND]
CONFIGURE DEFAULT DEVICE TYPE TO sbt;
SPOOL LOG TO '/tmp/current_config.log';
SHOW ALL;
SPOOL LOG OFF;
SPOOL LOG TO '/home/oracle/rman.log';
BACKUP DATABASE;
SPOOL LOG OFF;
 
SQL

Execute a SQL statement from within RMAN
SQL '<SQL_statement>'
RUN {
  SQL 'ALTER SYSTEM ARCHIVE LOG CURRENT';
}
 
Startup

Startup a Database
STARTUP <DBA | FORCE | MOUNT | NOMOUNT>

STARTUP PFILE '<file_name>'
$ rman TARGET / CATALOG repoomega/oracle1@repos

RMAN> STARTUP MOUNT;
 
Switch
Specify that a datafile copy is now the current datafile, that is, the datafile pointed to by the control file. This command is equivalent to the SQL statement ALTER DATABASE RENAME FILE as it applies to datafiles
Switch the controlfile to point to an ImageCopy of the data file SWITCH DATABASE TO COPY
TBD
  SWITCH DATAFILE '<data_file_specification>' TO COPY
TBD
  SWITCH DATAFILE '<data_file_specification>' TO DATAFILECOPY '<file_name>'
TBD
  SWITCH DATAFILE '<data_file_specification>' TO DATAFILECOPY TAG '<tag_name>'
TBD
A disk fails, forcing a datafile restore to a new disk location.  Connecting to the TARGET, SET NEWNAME to rename the datafile, then RESTORE the missing datafile. Run SWITCH to point the control file to the new datafile and then RECOVER. SWITCH DATAFILE ALL
RUN {
  ALLOCATE CHANNEL d1 DEVICE TYPE DISK;
  SQL "ALTER TABLESPACE uwdata OFFLINE IMMEDIATE";
  SET NEWNAME FOR DATAFILE '/u01/oradata/users01.dbf' TO '/u02/oradata/users01.dbf';
  RESTORE TABLESPACE uwclass;
  SWITCH DATAFILE ALL;
  RECOVER TABLESPACE uwclass;
  SQL "ALTER TABLESPACE uwclass ONLINE";
}
Assume all datafiles of the USERS  tablespace are damaged but image copies exist in the FRA. Connect to the TARGET and use SWITCH to point the control file to the new datafiles then RECOVER. SWITCH TABLESPACE '<tablespace_name>' TO COPY
SQL "ALTER TABLESPACE users OFFLINE IMMEDIATE";
SWITCH TABLESPACE users TO COPY;
RECOVER TABLESPACE users;
SQL "ALTER TABLESPACE users ONLINE";
  SWITCH TEMPFILE <temp_file_specification> TO '<file_name>'
TBD
  SWITCH TEMPFILE ALL
TBD
 
Transport Tablespace
Create transportable tablespace sets from backup for one or more tablespaces TRANSPORT TABLESPACE
TBD
 
Unregister

Unregister a Database from the Catalog
UNREGISTER DATABASE '<database_name>' [NOPROMPT]
RMAN> UNREGISTER DATABASE;
UNREGISTER DB_UNIQUE_NAME '<db_unique_name>' [INCLUDING BACKUPS [NOPROMPT]]
RMAN> LIST DB_UNIQUE_NAME ALL;
RMAN> UNREGISTER DB_UNIQUE_NAME 'ORADATA';
 
Upgrade Catalog
Upgrade the recovery catalog schema from an older version to the version required by RMAN UPGRADE CATALOG
RMAN> UPGRADE CATALOG;
 
Validate
Examine a backup set and report whether its data is intact. RMAN scans all of the backup pieces in the specified backup sets and looks at the checksums to verify that the contents can be successfully restored

Validate archivelogs
VALIDATE ARCHIVELOG ALL
VALIDATE ARCHIVELOG LIKE '<string_pattern>'
VALIDATE ARCHIVELOG FROM SCN <integer>
VALIDATE ARCHIVELOG BETWEEN SCN <integer> AND SCN <integer>
VALIDATE ARCHIVELOG UNTIL SCN <integer>
VALIDATE ARCHIVELOG FROM SEQUENCE <integer> [THREAD <integer>]
VALIDATE ARCHIVELOG SEQUENCE <integer> [THREAD <integer>]
VALIDATE ARCHIVELOG SEQUENCE BETWEEN <integer> AND <integer>
VALIDATE ARCHIVELOG UNTIL SEQUENCE <integer> [THREAD <integer>]
TIME BETWEEN '<date_string>' AND '<date_string>'
UNTIL TIME '<date_string>'
RMAN> VALIDATE ARCHIVELOG ALL;
? VALIDATE BACKUPSET <primaryKey>
TBD
Validate all control files copies VALIDATE CONTROLFILECOPY ALL
VALIDATE CONTROLFILECOPY '<file_name>'
VALIDATE CONTROLFILECOPY LIKE '<string_pattern>'
RMAN> VALIDATE CONTROLFILECOPY ALL;
Validate all database, datafile, or tablespace copies VALIDATE COPY OF DATABASE
VALIDATE COPY OF DATAFILE '<file_name>'
VALIDATE COPY OF DATAFILE <file_number>
VALIDATE COPY OF TABLESPACE '<tablespace_name>'
RMAN> VALIDATE COPY OF TABLESPACE 'UWDATA';
? VALIDATE <blockObject>
TBD
Validate the current control file VALIDATE CURRENT CONTROLFILE
RMAN> VALIDATE CURRENT CONTROLFILE;
Validate the complete database VALIDATE DATABASE
RMAN> VALIDATE DATABASE;
Validate the identified datafile VALIDATE DATAFILE '<file_name>'
VALIDATE DATAFILE <file_number>
RMAN> VALIDATE DATAFILE 'C:\ORACLE\PRODUCT\ORADATA\ORABASE\UWDATA01';
RMAN> VALIDATE DATAFILE 9;
Validate the recovery file destination VALIDATE DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST
RMAN> VALIDATE DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST;
Validate the recovery area VALIDATE RECOVERY AREA
RMAN> VALIDATE RECOVERY AREA;
Validate recovery the files VALIDATE RECOVERY FILES
RMAN> VALIDATE RECOVERY FILES;
Validate the server parameter file VALIDATE SPFILE
RMAN> VALIDATE SPFILE;
Validate the named tablespace VALIDATE TABLESPACE <tablespace_name_list>
RMAN> VALIDATE TABLESPACE uwdata;
 
RMAN Demos

Using a target database controlfile instead of recovery catalog

The following were provided to PSOUG by member Andrea Sparling
RMAN> CONFIGURE RETENTION POLICY TO REDUNDANCY 1;
RMAN> CONFIGURE BACKUP OPTIMIZATION OFF; # default
RMAN> CONFIGURE DEFAULT DEVICE TYPE TO DISK; # default
RMAN> CONFIGURE CONTROLFILE AUTOBACKUP OFF; # default
RMAN> CONFIGURE CONTROLFILE AUTOBACKUP FORMAT FOR DEVICE TYPE DISK
      TO '%F';
RMAN> CONFIGURE DEVICE TYPE DISK PARALLELISM 1 BACKUP TYPE TO
      COMPRESSED BACKUPSET; # default
RMAN> CONFIGURE DATAFILE BACKUP COPIES FOR DEVICE TYPE DISK TO 1;
RMAN> CONFIGURE ARCHIVELOG BACKUP COPIES FOR DEVICE TYPE DISK TO 1;
RMAN> CONFIGURE MAXSETSIZE TO 2 G;
RMAN> CONFIGURE ARCHIVELOG DELETION POLICY TO NONE;
RMAN> CONFIGURE SNAPSHOT CONTROLFILE NAME TO 
      '/u01/app/oracle/product/10.1.0.3/dbs/snapcf_pnbdb.f';

Incremental Level 0 Backup
RMAN> connect target /

RMAN> BACKUP INCREMENTAL LEVEL 0
      TAG full_backup 
      FORMAT '/u03/backup/rman_fullbackup_%d_%t.%s.%c.%p.bus' 
      DATABASE;

RMAN> COPY CURRENT CONTROLFILE TO '/u03/backup/ctrlfile.backup';
RMAN> CROSSCHECK BACKUP;
RMAN> CROSSCHECK ARCHIVELOG ALL;
RMAN> DELETE OBSOLETE;
RMAN> DELETE EXPIRED ARCHIVELOG ALL;
RMAN> LIST BACKUP;
RMAN> LIST ARCHIVELOG ALL;

Incremental
#!/bin/sh
#####################################################
# script to take a rman full backup 
# this script must be run
# as the trusted user 'oracle10g' 'oracle9i' etc
#####################################################
#
create output logs with that number and the current date in the ./rman/logs directory age out in 14-30 days
#
get env IMPORTANT, if multiple Oracle SID's the env var ORACLE_SID must be set

. /etc/bashrc
export ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle;
export ORACLE_HOME=$ORACLE_BASE/product/10.1.0.3;
export ORACLE_SID=pnbdb;
export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/u01/app/oracle/product/10.1.0.3/lib:/lib:/usr/lib;

# set relative head of directory (work disk is u03, oracle disk is u01)
HEAD=/u03
WORK=$HEAD/backup/scripts
cd $WORK

# unique logfile
DATE=`date +"%Y%m%d-%H%M%S"`
LOGFILE='/u03/backup/rman/logs/rman_full_backup_'${DATE}'.log'
echo "log: "${LOGFILE} > $LOGFILE
echo "Started " >> $LOGFILE
date >> $LOGFILE
echo instance $ORACLE_SID >> $LOGFILE
##########################################################################
 
${ORACLE_HOME}/bin/rman @${WORK}/rman_full.rcv >> $LOGFILE
returncode=$?
echo $returncode return code >> $LOGFILE
df >> $LOGFILE
echo "Ended " >> $LOGFILE
date >> $LOGFILE

if [ $returncode -ne 0 ]; then
  echo " email error log " >> $LOGFILE
  mail csds_opb@u.washington.edu -s"RMAN ERROR LOG for parnassus pnbdb backup" < $LOGFILE
  mail amspar@u.washington.edu -s"RMAN ERROR LOG for parnassus pnbdb backup" < $LOGFILE
fi
exit
 
RAC Demo
Crosschecking on Multiple Nodes of an Oracle Real Application Clusters Configuration: Example In this example, you perform a crosscheck of backups on two nodes of an Oracle Real Application Clusters configuration, where each node has access to a subset of backups. It is assumed here that all backups are accessible by at least one of the two nodes used in the crosscheck. Any backups not accessible from at least one of the nodes are marked EXPIRED after the crosscheck.

RMAN on a RAC Cluster
ALLOCATE CHANNEL FOR MAINTENANCE DEVICE TYPE DISK CONNECT  'sys/oracle1@inst1';
ALLOCATE CHANNEL FOR MAINTENANCE DEVICE TYPE DISK CONNECT 'sys/oracle1@inst2';
CROSSCHECK BACKUP;
 
RMAN Related Queries

?
SELECT recovery_estimated_ios, actual_redo_blks, target_redo_blks, target_mttr, estimated_mttr
FROM gv$instance_recovery;

SELECT * FROM v_$recovery_file_dest;

SELECT COUNT(*) FROM dba_hist_instance_recovery;

cd /app/oracle/product/OracleHomes/oradata/orcl

ls -la

cd /app/oracle/product/OracleHomes/admin/orcl/bdump

tail alert_orcl.log

rm control02.ctl

ls -la

SQL> conn hr/hr (after unlocking account)
SQL> desc jobs
SQL> INSERT INTO jobs VALUES (987,'TEST',0,1);
SQL> COMMIT;
-- also build a dummy table

tail alert_orcl.log
-- no one knows anything bad has happened

SQL> select file_name from mgmt$db_controlfiles;

-- lets do a shutdown and restart
SQL> shutdown immediate;

SQL> conn / as sysdba
Connected.
SQL> shutdown immediate;
ORA-00210: cannot open the specified control file
ORA-00202: control file:
'/app/oracle/product/OracleHomes/oradata/orcl/control02.ctl'
ORA-27041: unable to open file
Linux Error: 2: No such file or directory
Additional information: 3
-- now we have a problem

SQL> shutdown abort;

tail the alert log and we know what happened

RUN {
  STARTUP FORCE NOMOUNT;
  RESTORE CONTROLFILE;
  DATABASE MOUNT;
  RESTORE DATABASE;
  RECOVER DATABASE;
}

alter database open resetlogs;

ls -la shows control files back

rman done

-- hadn't done a backup after last restore
RMAN> run {startup force nomount; restore controlfile;
alter database mount;}

tail the alert log

-- look at /app/oracle/OracleHomes/oradata/orcl

-- the file is restored
ls -la

conn / as sysdba
shutdown immediate;
startup

-- note error message
SQL> startup
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 440401920 bytes
Fixed Size 1219880 bytes
Variable Size 130024152 bytes
Database Buffers 306184192 bytes
Redo Buffers 2973696 bytes
Database mounted.
ORA-01589: must use RESETLOGS or NORESETLOGS option
for database open

SQL> startup mount;

tail alert_orcl.log

-- next dumped controlfiles 1 and 3
shutdown immediate fails
shutdown abort
connect to RMAN
 
Backup and Recovery Practices Best Practices
Metalink Note: 388422.1 1. Turn on block checking
REASON: The aim is to detect, very early the presence of corrupt blocks in the database. This has a slight performance overhead, but Checksums allow Oracle to detect early corruption caused by underlying disk, storage system, or I/O system problems.

SQL> alter system set db_block_checking = true scope=both;

2. Turn on block tracking when using RMAN backups (if running 10g or above)
REASON: This will allow RMAN to backup only those blocks that have changed since the last full backup, which will reduce the time taken to back up, as less blocks will be backed up.

SQL> alter database enable block change tracking using file /u01/oradata/ora1/change_tracking.f;

3. Duplex log groups and members and have more than one archive log dest
REASON: If an archivelog is corrupted or lost, by having multiple copies in multiple locations, the other logs will still be available and could be used.

If an online log is deleted or becomes corrupt, you will have another member that can be used to recover if required.

SQL> alter system set log_archive_dest_2='location=/new/location/archive2' scope=both;
SQL> alter database add logfile member '/new/location/redo21.log' to group 1;

4. When backing up the database use the 'check logical' parameter
REASON: This will cause RMAN to check for logical corruption within a block as well as the normal
head/tail checksumming. This is the best way to ensure that you will get a good backup.

RMAN> backup check logical database plus archivelog delete input;

5. Test your backup
REASON: This will do everything except actually restore the database. This is the best method to determine if your backup is good and usable before being in a situation where it is
critical and issues exist.

RMAN> restore validate database;

6. Have each datafile in a single backup piece
REASON: When doing a partial restore RMAN must read through the entire piece to get the
datafile/archivelog requested. The smaller the backup piece the quicker the restore can
complete. This is especially relevent with tape backups of large databases or where the
restore is only on indiviDUAL / few files.

RMAN> backup database filesperset 1 plus archivelog delete input;

7. Maintain your RMAN catalog/controlfile
REASON: Choose your retention policy carefully. Make sure that it compliments your tape subsystem
retention policy, requirements for backup recovery strategy. If not using a catalog, ensure that your controlfile record keep time instance parameter matches your retention policy.

SQL> alter system set control_file_record_keep_time=21 scope=both;
This will keep 21 days of backup records.

Run regular catalog maintenance.
REASON: Delete obsolete will remove backups that are outside your retention policy. If obsolete backups are not deleted, the catalog will continue to grow until performance becomes an issue.

RMAN> delete obsolete;

REASON: crosschecking will check that the catalog/controlfile matches the physical backups. If a backup is missing, it will set the piece to 'EXPIRED' so when a restore is started, that it will not be eligible, and an earlier backup will be used. To remove the expired backups from the catalog/controlfile use the delete expired command.

RMAN> crosscheck backup;
RMAN> delete expired backup;

8. Prepare for loss of controlfiles set autobackup on
REASON: This will ensure that you always have an up to date controlfile available that has been taken at the end of the current backup not during.

RMAN> configure controlfile autobackup on;

keep your backup logs
REASON: The backup log contains parameters for your tape access, locations on controlfile backups that can be utilised if complete loss occurs.

9. Test your recovery
REASON: During a recovery situation this will let you know how the recovery will go without actually doing it, and can avoid having to restore source datafiles again.

SQL> recover database test;

10. Do not specify 'delete all input' when backing up archivelogs
REASON: Delete all input' will backup from one destination then delete both copies of the archivelog where as 'delete input' will backup from one location and then delete what has been backed up. The next backup will back up those from location 2 as well as new logs from location 1, then delete all that are backed up. This means that you will have the archivelogs since the last backup available on disk in location 2 (as well as backed up once) and two copies backup up prior to the previous backup.

 
Related Topics
Archivelogs
Block Change Tracking
DBMS_IR
DBMS_RCVMAN
DDL Event Triggers
Flashback Database
Flashback Query
Flashback Table
RMAN Demo
System Event Triggers
 
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